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Technical Papers
Predicting the Benefit of Gravity Recovery Prior to Flotation

2011 - Batch centrifugal gravity concentrators have become standard equipment in gold grinding circuits for recovery of Gravity Recoverable Gold (GRG). The downstream benefits of installing a gravity circuit are well understood, and in general, if there is a reasonable amount of GRG in the ore, a gravity circuit is usually installed. The benefits of gold gravity recovery have also been well documented, with a large database of successful case studies. As well, predicting production scale gravity recovery results ahead of installing gravity has become a common practice. Read More...

Knelson-Deswik Milling Technology: Bridging the Gap between Low and High Speed Stirred Mills

2011 - Over the past twenty years there has been an increased emphasis on fine grinding in the minerals industry. This spurred the development of a range of new fine grinding equipment in the 1990's. At that time, the Knelson-Deswik mill was developed in South Africa for the pigments industry. Read More...

Improvements in Gravity and Overall Gold Recovery at NVI Mining Ltd. Myra Falls Operation

April 18, 2006  NVI Mining’s Myra Falls Operation is a 4,000 mtpd copper/zinc flotation circuit with by product
gold of ~28,000 ounces per year. Gold recovery has historically averaged 40-55%, however, a
portion of this was recovered in the zinc concentrate and received poor payment. Two Knelson
CD-30 Concentrators have been operating in the grinding circuit since 1992, with gravity
recovery averaging about 2-5% over that time period.
Read more.

Boliden Bolsters Gold Recovery with Knelson Concentrators

November 4, 2005  Boliden Odda AS was established in 1924 and quickly became one of the world’s leading producers of zinc. Prior to the start of World War II, Boliden was producing 46,000 tonnes of zinc annually. The disruption caused by the war  dropped production dramatically, however, over the decades following the war the company experienced dramatic growth and by the mid-1980’s annual zinc production hit 140,000 tonnes. Read more.

The Introduction of a Gold Gravity Circuit at the Bimak Copper Concentrator, Bulgaria

June 1, 2004 (archives) Previous mineralogical investigations at Bimak had shown that approximately 10% of the gold in the ore could be liberated. This paper details the initial testwork and the installation of Knelson concentrators at Bimak AD, Bulgaria. Read more.

Developments in Gravity Concentration Circuit in Ashanti Goldfields Company, Obuasi

May 7, 2004
Increasing importance has been given to gravity concentration systems at AGC Obuasi plants and significant developments have recently been achieved. The achievement has improved free gold recovery from 8% to 16% of the total gold recovered at the Pompora Treatment Plant (PTP) and the elimination of the nugget effect has significantly improved metallurgical accounting.
Read more.

Gravity Circuit Optimisation via Mathematical Modelling by Particle Size Classes

April 28, 2004
Many factors affect the overall performance of a gravity circuit beyond that of the primary gravity recovery device. It is critical to examine the gravity circuit in its entirety in order to determine the dominant operating variables that affect overall performance. Knelson has developed KC-MOD*Pro; a mathematical model of gravity circuits. The KC-MOD*Pro model has been used to assist in the design of gravity circuits, and in particular, in making accurate predictions of plant scale gravity recovery.
Read more.

eXtreme Processing - Maximum Benefit for Minimum Effort

March 25, 2004
The advent of continuous gravity technology affords the opportunity to capture not only the free liberated gold, but also the gold carrying species into a small, high-grade concentrate. This concentrate can then be treated under more intensive conditions in a small, dedicated plant for maximum recovery. The benefits are obviously lower capital plant installation costs and lower operating costs since only a fraction of the ore is treated. Knelson Gravity Solutions has coined the term "eXtreme Processing" to describe a processing system comprising of....
Read more.

Recent Gravity Improvements at the Porcupine Joint Venture

February 1, 2004
Since milling began in 1912, the Dome mill, now part of the Porcupine Joint Venture (PJV), has been expanded several times. Over the past few years, continuous gravity improvements have increased the gravity recovery from 20% to nearly 50% of the plant feed. This paper describes some of the factors that have contributed to this dramatic increase, and suggests how gravity recovery can be further improved.
Read more....

Gravity Leaching with the ConSep ACACIA Reactor
Results from Anglogold, Unions Reefs

December 11, 2003
This paper has particular focus on the ConSep ACACIA Reactor's role in removing slow leaching components from data generated over a 21-month period. Benefits of the ACACIA are also discussed, such as the enhancement of the dissolution kinetics, enhancement of the absorption kinetics, reduction of the gold load reporting to the carbon, significant reduction of the 'gold in circuit' lockup and more.
Read more....

Knelson Concentrator Aids in Processing Shift From Silver to Gold Production

October 7, 2002
ARCHIVED PAPER (1997) - The Kinross DeLamar Mine was in operation for more than 17 years producing precious metals doré from ores, principally silver bearing with associated gold co- products. In late 1995 a new ore-body was commissioned, the Stone Cabin ore-body, and the site began a phased shift from silver dominance to gold dominance in terms of precious metals revenue. The Knelson Concentrator was selected to remove gold....Read more.

Leaching Gravity Concentrates using the ACACIA Reactor

July 3, 2002
This paper discusses the gravity concentration at Union Reefs Gold Mine, testing of a pilot scale ACACIA Reactor, design considerations, process description, the process flowsheet, engineering and construction, commissioning period and the operating results.
Read more....

Gravity Leaching - The ACACIA Reactor

May 14, 2002
Gravity Leaching of high grade gravity gold concentrates, such as Knelson Concentrates, with the ConSep ACACIA Reactor represents a new generation of concentrate treatment methods. The ConSep ACACIA Reactor is a complete packaged plant for the maximising of gold recoveries from gravity gold concentrates. This paper will introduce the process technology and provide process results from the Porgera ConSep ACACIA Reactor installation.
Read more....

Gold Gravity Recovery in Copper Circuits at BHP Mine

March 8, 2002 - Re-post
TINTAYA, Peru - During the first 12 months of operation of the Knelson-based gravity circuit, BHP Tintaya produced over 200 tonnes of gravity gold concentrate....
Read more.

More Technical Papers

Share Your Knelson Experience
"We have a XD48 concentrator on site which is helping in our throughput though we started using Knelson concentrators in 1993, the product has improved over the years and we will not have been where we are now without it and it will get better and better with the years." - Maureen Mensah, Purchasing Officer - Ashanti-Iduapriem Mine, Ghana ...more > >
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